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  • CCNA Quick Notes – Internetworking

    By admin | April 3, 2009

    1.What are the three layers of the Cisco Hierarchical Model?
    The three layers of the Cisco Hierarchical Model are:1
    The access layer
    The distribution layer
    The core layer
    2.In the Cisco Hierarchical Model, what is the function of the access layer?
    Sometimes referred to as the desktop layer, the access layer is the point at which users connect to the network through low-end switches. Some functions of the access layer include:
    Connectivity into the distribution layer
    Shared Bandwidth
    MAC Address filtering (switching)
    Segmentation

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNA, CCNA R&S, Quick Notes | No Comments »

    CCNA Quick Notes – WAN

    By admin | April 3, 2009

    1.The three WAN connection types available are leased lines, circuit-switched, and packet-switched. Define the differences between each connection type.
    Leased lines are dedicated point-to-point lines that provide a single preestablished WAN communication path from the customer’s network to the remote network. Leased lines are usually employed over synchronous connections. They are generally expensive and are always up. Circuit-switched connections are dedicated for only the duration of the call. The telephone system and ISDN are examples of circuit-switched networks. Packet-switched connections use virtual circuits (VCs) to provide end-to-end connectivity. Packet-switched connections are similar to leased lines, except that the line is shared by other customers. A packet knows how to reach its destination by programming of switches. Frame Relay is an example of a packet-switched connection.
    2.Define customer premises equipment (CPE), and give an example.
    CPE is equipment that is located on the customer’s (or subscriber’s) premises. It is equipment owned by the customer or equipment leased by the service provider to the customer. An example is your router.

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNA, CCNA R&S, Quick Notes | No Comments »

    CCNA Quick Notes – LAN

    By admin | April 3, 2009

    1. What is carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD)?
    CSMA/CD describes the Ethernet access method. In CSMA/CD, many stations can transmit on the same cable, and no station has priority over any other. Before a station transmits, it listens on the wire to make sure no other station is transmitting. If no other station is transmitting, the station transmits across the wire. CSMA/CD is all about devices taking turns using the wire.
    2. What are MAC addresses?
    For computers to identify each other on the data link layer, they need a MAC address (hardware address). All devices on a LAN must have a unique MAC address. A MAC address is a 48-bit (six octet) address burned into a network interface card. The first three octets (24 bits) of the MAC address indicate the vendor that manufactured the card. This is called the Organization Unique Identifier (OUI). The last three octets of the MAC address are the unique host address. An example of a MAC address is 00-80-C6-E7-9C-EF.

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNA, CCNA R&S, Quick Notes | 3 Comments »

    CCIE R&S Core Knowledge Question(3)

    By admin | April 3, 2009

    1. What is the primary difference between SNMP traps and SNMP inform requests (informs)?

    Highlight for answer: SNMP informs are traps that include a request for confirmation of receipt from the SNMP manager.

    2. What is the multicast address that an OSPF device uses to communicate with the designated router?

    Highlight for answer: 224.0.0.6

    TIP: If you are allowed access to a command prompt during the open-ended questions and you want to verify your answer (or you know that the answer is 224.0.0.x but you forget what the last octet is)then you can always do an ‘nslookup 224.0.0.x’ and plug in values for the last octet.

    Highlight below for some examples (from Linux but Windows will return the same/similar results):

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCIE R&S, Open-Ended-Question | 1 Comment »

    CCIE R&S Core Knowledge Question(2)

    By admin | April 3, 2009

    1. Which point-to-multipoint technology utilizes an IPv4 address embedded in an IPv6 address (the IPv4 address is converted to hexadecimal and then concatenated to the prefix 2002::/16) to allow isolated IPv6 domains to be connected over an IPv4 network to remote IPv6 networks?

    Highlight for answer: Automatic 6to4 Tunnels

    2. Which OSPF feature allows a router to continue to forward packets while undergoing specific, well-known failure conditions?

    Highlight for answer: OSPF Graceful Restart

    3. By default, OSPF floods new LSAa over all interfaces in the same area except…..

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCIE R&S, Open-Ended-Question | No Comments »

    CCIE R&S Core Knowledge Question(1)

    By admin | April 3, 2009

    1. Which LSA type is flooded throughout the autonomous system by an Area Border Router and contains an AS Boundary Router address?

    Highlight for answer: Type-4 LSA (ASBR Summary)

    2. R1#ping FE80::2
    Output Interface: Serial1/0
    Type escape sequence to abort.
    Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::2, timeout is 2 seconds:
    Packet sent with a source address of FE80::5
    !!!!!
    Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 8/8/12 ms

    Why must you specify an output interface when pinging FE80::2?

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCIE R&S, Open-Ended-Question | No Comments »

    CCIE R&S Lab Exam (Open-Ended-Question)

    By admin | April 3, 2009

    First,let’s look at two Cisco official declarations about the open-ended question of CCIE R&S Lab Exam.

    Jan 14, 2009

    Changes to CCIE Lab and Written Exam Question Format and Scoring

    Effective February 1, 2009, Cisco will introduce a new type of question format to CCIE Routing and Switching lab exams. In addition to the live configuration scenarios, candidates will be asked a series of four or five open-ended questions, drawn from a pool of questions based on the material covered on the lab blueprint. No new topics are being added. The exams are not been increased in difficulty and the well-prepared candidate should have no trouble answering the questions. The length of the exam will remain eight hours. Candidates will need to achieve a passing score on both the open-ended questions and the lab portion in order to pass the lab and become certified.  Other CCIE tracks will change over the next year, with exact dates announced in advance.

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCIE R&S, CCIE Track, Open-Ended-Question | No Comments »

    BCMSN Lab4 – Configuring Layer 3 Redundancy with HSRP

    By admin | April 2, 2009

    Lab Objectives

    1. Understand the working principles of HSRP.

    2. Master the HSRP configuration methods.

    3. Understand the standby and track functions of HSRP.

    Lab TopologyRead the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNP, CCNP Lab Kits | No Comments »

    BCMSN Lab3 – Configuring L2 & L3 EtherChannel with LACP

    By admin | April 2, 2009

    Lab Objectives

    1. Master the configuration methods of the Cisco-proprietary LACP link aggregation protocol.

    2. Master the differences between the Layer2 LACP configuration and the Layer3 LACP configuration.

    3. LACP is the public standard link aggregation protocol.

    Lab TopologyRead the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNP, CCNP Lab Kits | No Comments »