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  • Converting IPv4 to IPv6 and back

    By admin | April 9, 2009

    Converting from IPv4 to IPv6

    Is so easy, yet everyone seem to convert a IPv4 address to binary, then to IPv6. Why? Why waste time and do things the long way? Not cool.

    Firstly before starting I will assume everyone knows the following:

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNA, CCNA Articles, CCNA R&S | 4 Comments »

    CCIE R&S Core Knowledge Question(4)

    By admin | April 9, 2009

    1. Which LSA type is originated by the designated router only?

    Highlight for answer: Type-2 (Network) LSA

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCIE R&S, Open-Ended-Question | No Comments »

    CCNA Quick Notes – TCP/IP

    By admin | April 8, 2009

    1.What are the four layers of the TCP/IP layer model?
    The four layers of the TCP/IP layer model are:
    Application (process)
    Host-to-host (transport)
    Internet
    Network Access (physical and data link)
    2.What two protocols function at the transport (host-to-host) layer of the TCP/IP model?
    The two protocols that function at the host-to-host layer of the TCP/IP model are TCP and UDP. (TCP is a connection-oriented, reliable protocol. UDP is a connectionless and unacknowledged protocol.)

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNA, CCNA Quick Notes, CCNA R&S | No Comments »

    CCNA Quick Notes – VLANs

    By admin | April 8, 2009

    1.What are VLANs?
    VLANs are broadcast domains in a Layer 2 network. Each broadcast domain is like a distinct virtual bridge within the switch. Each virtual bridge you create in a switch defines a broadcast domain. By default, traffic from one VLAN cannot pass to another VLAN. Each of the users in a VLAN is also in the same IP subnet, and each switch port can belong to only one VLAN.
    2.What are the three characteristics of a typical VLAN setup?
    The three characteristics of a typical VLAN setup are:
    Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical bridge.
    VLANs can span multiple switches.
    Trunks carry traffic for multiple VLANs.

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNA, CCNA Quick Notes, CCNA R&S | No Comments »

    CCNA Quick Notes – PPP

    By admin | April 8, 2009

    1.PPP can be used over what physical WAN interfaces?
    PPP can be used on the following:
    Asynchronous serial interfaces
    High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI)
    ISDN
    Synchronous serial interfaces

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNA, CCNA Quick Notes, CCNA R&S | No Comments »

    CCNA Quick Notes – IOS Commands

    By admin | April 8, 2009

    1.What two EXEC modes are supported in the Cisco IOS?
    The two EXEC modes are:
    User EXEC mode (user mode)
    Privileged EXEC mode (enable or privileged mode)
    In the IOS, what is User EXEC mode?
    User EXEC mode is the first mode you enter when you log into the IOS. This mode is limited and is mostly used to view statistics. You cannot change a router’s configuration in this mode. By default, the greater-than sign (>) indicates that you are in user mode. This is how the router prompt looks in user mode: Router>

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNA, CCNA Quick Notes, CCNA R&S | No Comments »

    CCNA Quick Notes – NetworkManagement

    By admin | April 8, 2009

    1.What is the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)?
    CDP is a Cisco proprietary protocol that runs on all Cisco IOS-enabled devices. It is used to gather information about directly connected neighboring devices. CDP operates at Layer 2 of the OSI model and is media-independent. With CDP, you can tell the hardware type, device identifier, address list, software version, and active interfaces on neighboring Cisco devices. CDP is enabled by default on all Cisco equipment. It uses a nonroutable SNAP frame to communicate between devices.
    Note: Because CDP is media-independent it can operate over most media types. The only media types CDP cannot operate over are X.25, because it doesn’t support SNAP encapsulation, and Frame Relay point-to-multipoint interfaces.

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: CCNA, CCNA Quick Notes, CCNA R&S | No Comments »

    CCNA(640-802) Lab – RIPv2(New)

    By admin | April 7, 2009

    RIPv2 was first described in RFC 1388 and RFC 1723 (1994); the current RFC is 2453, written in November 1998. Although current environments use advanced routing protocols such as OSPF and EIGRP, there still are networks using RIP. The need to use VLSMs and other requirements prompted the definition of RIPv2.

    RIPv2 improves upon RIPv1 with the ability to use VLSM, with support for route authentication, and with multicasting of route updates. RIPv2 supports CIDR. It still sends updates every 30 seconds and retains the 15-hop limit; it also uses triggered updates. RIPv2 still uses UDP port 520; the RIP process is responsible for checking the version number. It retains the loop-prevention strategies of poison reverse and counting to infinity. On Cisco routers, RIPv2 has the same administrative distance as RIPv1, which is 120. Finally, RIPv2 uses the IP address 224.0.0.9 when multicasting route updates to other RIP routers. As in RIPv1, RIPv2 will, by default, summarize IP networks at network boundaries. You can disable autosummarization if required.

    You can use RIPv2 in small networks where VLSM is required. It also works at the edge of larger networks.

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: 640-802 Exam, CCNA, CCNA R&S | No Comments »

    CCNA(640-802) Lab – NAT(New)

    By admin | April 3, 2009

    NAT is Short for Network Address Translation, an Internet standard that enables a local-area network (LAN) to use one set of IP addresses for internal traffic and a second set of addresses for external traffic. A NAT box located where the LAN meets the Internet makes all necessary IP address translations.

    NAT serves three main purposes:

  • Provides a type of firewall by hiding internal IP addresses
  • Enables a company to use more internal IP addresses. Since they’re used internally only, there’s no possibility of conflict with IP addresses used by other companies and organizations.
  • Allows a company to combine multiple ISDN connections into a single Internet connection.
  • I suggest you should study NAT knowledge carefully, and then start following lab.

    Read the rest of this entry »

    Topics: 640-802 Exam, CCNA, CCNA R&S | 2 Comments »